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SWOT Analysis: Implementation Of National Education Standard Policy To Improve The Quality Of High School Graduates

SWOT Analysis: Implementation Of National Education Standard Policy To Improve The Quality Of High School Graduates

 



Eri Orpa1*, R. Madhakomala2

1,2Jakarta State University, Indonesia 

Corresponding Author: Eri Orpa,  eriorpa@gmail.com

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords: SWOT, National Education Standards, Quality, Educational Institutions

Received : Date, Month

Revised  : Date, Month

Accepted: Date, Month

©2022The Author(s): This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Atribusi 4.0 Internasional.

A B S T R A C T

The competence of quality graduates cannot be separated from the relationship between each educational standard that is a reference for management, governance, and education. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the implementation of national education standard policies as guidelines for improving the quality of education governance based on the quality of graduates who are ready to compete in the world of work both nationally and at the global level. The approach used in this analysis is descriptive-qualitative, which involves processing data obtained through literature studies in the form of reference books, scientific journals, official documents, digital sites, and official information that can be accessed online. The results of the study on the topic above conclude that SWOT analysis can be used as an alternative management analysis tool to identify aspects of strengths, challenges, opportunities, and threats to improve the quality and competence of graduates in accordance with the policies of national education standards. The results of the SWOT analysis recommend alternative strategies that can be developed and followed up as a form of implementation for improving the quality of graduates .

INTRODUCTION 

Education is one of the most important cornerstones of development. One of the initiatives undertaken is to enhance the caliber of education with the aim of fostering a generation that has the capacity to excel both domestically and internationally. The Indonesian government is committed to enhancing the quality of education in the country by implementing various policies, such as the National Education System Law No. 20/2003 and the Government Regulation on National Education Standards (SNP) No. 57/2021, which was subsequently amended by PP on SNP No. 02/2022. The National Education Standards Agency (BSNP) has released instructions for implementing the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) ISO 21001:2018 Educational Organization Management System (SMOP). The SNP, which serves as the foundation for the implementation of education as regulated in PP No. 57 of 2021 Article 3, consists of the following components: 1) Graduate Competency Standards; 2) Content Standards; 3) Process Standards; 4) Education Assessment Standards; 5) Education Personnel Standards; 6) Facilities and Infrastructure Standards; 7) Management Standards; and 8) Financing Standards. Edwards Deming (1982) explains that problem solving to achieve continuous improvement is known as quality. Quality aspects must be designed in such a way as to meet current and future customer needs. Crosby (1979:58) defines quality as conformity with standard requirements. A product or service is said to be of quality when it conforms to established quality standards, which include inputs, processes, and outputs. To achieve the quality that is cooled, the references are ISO and SNI. In the context of education in Indonesia, using SNI ISO 21001: 2018. The content of the standard in question details the requirements and provides guidance for establishing, implementing, maintaining, reviewing, and improving management systems for educational product and service provider organizations so as to meet the requirements of learners and other beneficiaries (SNI ISO 21001: 2018).

The relationship of SNI ISO 21001: 2018 with other policies refers to: 1) common management tools that can be used by all educational organizations to implement concepts, structures, and quality management; 2) enable educational organizations to demonstrate proficiency in providing consistent education to learners; 3) can be applied independently and aligned with ISO 9001; 4) can be implemented together (integration) with regional and national standards. The ISO 21001: 2018 standard has the potential to improve the quality management model for educational institutions in Indonesia because it is in line with the standards of education management, professional performance, learning, and infrastructure applied (Cerruto Serrano, 2022). The incorporation of SNP and ISO SNI standards is anticipated to provide educational institutions with a robust framework to enhance internal quality and attain a consistently superior level of education. Ensuring the application of SNP and ISO 21001: 2018 in Indonesian educational institutions is not only a legislative obligation but also a prudent approach to address the ever-changing global landscape. 


The process of improving school quality begins with the development of the school's vision and mission, taking into account both internal and external factors of the school environment. This is followed by the establishment of specific goals and targets for school quality and the subsequent determination of the strategy that the school will employ to achieve these agreed-upon targets (Kholili & Fajaruddin, 2020). The successful implementation of these two standards must produce graduates who have competencies and characters that are in accordance with the needs of the times. There are several challenges that are often faced in the implementation process, such as changes in teacher mindset and work culture, lack of in-depth understanding of the task and its functions, conflicts between teachers, reluctance to accept change, implementation methods, and the availability of facilities that are not evenly distributed or even minimal. These challenges then affect the competency standards of graduates. For example, based on the results of the Education Report Card for SMAN 1 Cikarang Timur Year 2023 issued by the Ministry of Education and Culture, student competence in terms of numeracy and literacy dimensions in numbers is still very lacking. Numeracy ability with a score of 40, meaning that from a total of 40% of new students, while literacy skills with a score of 66.7 out of a total score of 100.

The description above encourages the author to analyze the implementation of national education standard policies to improve the quality of graduates and be competitive both nationally and internationally. Research using a SWOT analysis of the above problems requires an appropriate and comprehensive school quality improvement strategy. In this context, this study aims to: 1) analyze strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and Threats    at SMAN 1 Cikarang Timur- Bekasi. 2) Formulate effective strategies to improve school quality based on the results of SWOT, SNP, and ISO 21001:2018 2018 analysis. 3) formulate recommendations for improving school quality so that student character and competition can be better.


METHODOLOGY

The author uses a descriptive qualitative analytical methodology. Data is acquired via literature reviews, which involve consulting reference books, scientific journals, official papers, and digital platforms or official internet sources that are pertinent to the analysed subject matter. This study examines many factors that contribute to enhancing the calibre and proficiency of graduates, in alignment with the guidelines set by national educational standards. It focuses on identifying strengths, difficulties, opportunities, and threats in order to improve the overall quality of education. Furthermore, the outcomes of this study can offer a comprehensive assessment and suggestions for educational institutions in the context of enhancing the governance of education with higher quality, aligned with the objectives of national education standard policies in Indonesia.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Education is a deliberate and organized endeavor to establish an environment and process for learning, enabling students to actively cultivate their potential in terms of religious spirituality, self-discipline, personality, intellect, moral character, and the necessary skills for themselves, society, nation, and state. In order to address these various aspects, a set of eight national education standards has been established. These standards include: 1) Graduate Competency Standards; 2) Content Standards; 3) Process Standards; 4) Education Assessment Standards; 5) Education Personnel Standards; 6) Facilities and Infrastructure Standards; 7) Management Standards; and 8) Financing Standards (PP No. 57 of 2021 Article 3 paragraph 1). The goals of SNP will be further developed in a systematic, purposeful, and enduring way to enhance the proficiency of graduate students in line with the evolving requirements of local, national, and global contexts.


Figure 1. National Education Standards

(Source: PP No. 57 of 2021 Article 3 paragraph 1)


The variables that contribute to the enhancement of school quality in the Graduate Competency Standards include sufficient facilities and infrastructure, effective school leadership, intrinsic motivation among teachers and students, and a favorable school environment (Muspida et al., 2020). An obstacle to enhancing school quality in the Graduate Competency Standard is the insufficient number of competent teachers, resulting in ineffective utilization of learning facilities and infrastructure, as well as a lack of engagement with the business and industrial sectors surrounding the school (Muspida et al., 2020). The school's approach to achieving the eight SNP criteria involves engaging competent committees and stakeholders in the process of planning, executing, and assessing (Muhammad Iwan Abdi & Siti Muri'ah, 2017). 

The Graduate Competency Standard (SKL) is a set of criteria that defines the minimum level of attitudes, skills, and knowledge that students must demonstrate in order to show their abilities upon completing their education. This standard is outlined in the Minister of Education and Culture for Research and Technology of Higher Education No. 05 of 2022. The SKL serves as a benchmark for the creation of content standards, process standards, educational assessment standards, education personnel standards, infrastructure requirements, management standards, and finance standards. The competency standards in secondary education units encompass three main aspects: a) fostering religious values and moral integrity in students through religious activities such as pesantren kilat, marawis, and MTQ; b) promoting character development aligned with the principles of Pancasila through social service initiatives like blood donations and support for disaster victims; and c) enhancing students' knowledge and skills to enable them to live independently and actively engage in further education. This is achieved through the implementation of effective learning plans, including training sessions and workshops, as outlined in the Minister of Education and Culture for Research and Technology of Higher Education No. 05 of 2022, Article 9. Practically, enhancing the proficiency of graduates focuses on adopting dynamic and enjoyable learning methods that align with the students' demands.

Content standards refer to the essential requirements that define the range of knowledge and skills necessary to attain a high degree of proficiency in specific fields, levels, and forms of education (as stated in Article 1, Paragraph 1 of the Minister of Education and Culture for Research and Technology of Higher Education No. 7 of 2022). Content standards are created by determining the range of material based on the skills and knowledge that graduates should possess. The mandatory content included in the primary and secondary education curriculum encompasses various subjects, namely: a) religious education; b) Pancasila education; c) civic education; d) language; e) mathematics; f) natural sciences; g) social sciences; h) art and culture; i) physical education and sports; j) skills/vocational; and k) local loads. Senior high schools can enhance teachers' analytical abilities regarding the learning objectives of each topic through implementation. This is explicitly outlined in the criteria for accomplishing educational goals, teaching modules, and lesson plans. 

The Process Standards refer to the essential requirements for the educational process, which are determined by the paths, levels, and types of education, in order to meet the standards of graduate competency as outlined in the Minister of Education and Culture for Research and Technology of Higher Education No. 16 of 2022, article 1, paragraph 1. Process standards serve as directives for implementing a productive and streamlined learning process that maximizes the growth, drive, capability, and autonomy of students. The Process Standards encompass three key components: a) the development of lesson plans; b) the execution of the learning process; and c) the evaluation of the learning process. Learning planning involves formulating the learning outcomes, which are the specific objectives of a learning unit. It also involves determining the methods to reach these objectives and how to assess the attainment of these objectives. 

The execution of education takes place within a learning environment that is: a) interactive; b) inspiring; c) enjoyable; d) demanding; e) encourages active participation from learners; and f) offers ample room for initiative, creativity, and independence in alignment with learners' talents, interests, and physical as well as psychological development. The evaluation of the learning process is conducted by assessing the design and execution of instruction performed by the respective educator. The evaluation of learning planning and implementation is conducted through two methods: a) self-reflection on the execution of planning and learning procedures; and b) self-reflection on the outcomes of assessments conducted by colleagues, education unit leaders, and/or students.

Educational assessment standards refer to the essential factors that determine the process of evaluating students' learning achievements. Assessment is the systematic gathering and analysis of data to ascertain pupils' educational requirements and their progress in achieving developmental milestones or learning objectives. Assessment may be categorized into two forms: formative assessment and summative evaluation. Formative assessment is designed to track and enhance the learning process while assessing the attainment of learning goals. Summative assessment is conducted to evaluate the extent to which students have achieved their learning objectives, which is then used to determine their grade improvement and eligibility for graduation. Educator standards refer to the essential benchmarks of proficiency and credentials that educators must possess in order to effectively fulfill their responsibilities and roles as exemplary figures, instructional designers, facilitators, and motivators for pupils. The minimal requirements for educator competency encompass pedagogical proficiency, personality aptitude, social skills, and professional expertise. The standard of education personnel, excluding educators, refers to the minimum level of competence required for their duties and responsibilities in areas such as administration, management, development, supervision, and technical services, all of which are aimed at supporting the educational process. The proficiency of education staff encompasses personality proficiency, social proficiency, and professional proficiency to facilitate the instructional process in educational institutions.

The quality of facilities and infrastructure refers to the minimal requirements that educational institutions must meet in terms of their facilities and infrastructure in order to effectively carry out education. Facilities encompass all the instruments and equipment that are utilized to accomplish educational goals. Infrastructure refers to the fundamental infrastructure required to support the operations of the Education Unit. The criteria for buildings and infrastructure are established based on the following principles: a) promoting active, creative, collaborative, enjoyable, and efficient learning; b) ensuring security, health, and safety; c) being accessible to those with disabilities; and d) maintaining environmental sustainability. Infrastructure management standards prioritize the utilization of all available resources within the education unit to effectively accomplish goals and objectives in alignment with established guidelines. Prearranged strategizing. The finance standard is the minimal requirement for the allocation of funds to the Education Unit's education financing component. Education financing has two components: investment expenditures and operational expenses. The investment expenditures encompass many components: a) land acquisition expenses; b) establishment of facilities and infrastructure; c) recruitment and training of personnel; and d) allocation of fixed working capital. Operating costs encompass both staff and non-personnel expenses.

The ever-evolving technology and changing times necessitate the education system to adapt in order to stay pertinent and efficient. Consequently, instructors, education personnel, and students must possess the ability to adjust in order to consistently deliver high-quality educational services. In order to attain such a level of service, it is imperative for an educational institution to possess a proficient management system that guarantees the fulfillment of students' requirements. The National Standardization Agency (BSN) has implemented the SNI ISO 21001: 2018 standard for Educational Organizations. BSN has adopted the ISO 21001: 2018 standard without any changes. SNI ISO 21001: 2018 serves as a benchmark for educational institutions to adopt a methodical approach to quality management, including principles, structures, and practices. SNI ISO 21001: 2018 is a methodology for managing education in businesses that deliver educational products and services and are capable of fulfilling the needs of students and other recipients (Raya et al., 2022). 

The SNI ISO 21001:2018 Educational Organization Management System encompasses 11 principles, one of which is centered on prioritizing learners and other stakeholders. The primary objective of SMOP is to fulfill the needs of learners and other recipients and beyond their expectations. Educational organizations should proactively engage learners in their own learning, considering societal demands, the vision and purpose of the organizations, as well as educational objectives and results. 2) Leadership characterized by a forward-thinking and innovative approach. Visionary leadership encompasses the ability to engage all learners and other benefactors in the process of formulating and executing the organization's vision, purpose, and goals. 3) Human Resources Attachment. It is crucial that all individuals engaged in the business possess the necessary skills, are authorized to make decisions, and actively contribute to delivering value. 4) Utilization of the process method. Optimal outcomes may be attained with more effectiveness and efficiency by comprehending and overseeing activities as interconnected and unified processes. 5) Ongoing enhancement: Prosperous firms have a constant emphasis on development.

Furthermore, there are other concepts that complement the aforementioned five principles. Furthermore, the sixth principle emphasizes the need of making judgments that are grounded on empirical facts. Decisions and curricula that rely on the study and assessment of facts and information are more likely to achieve intended outcomes. 7) Managing relationships. Organizations are required to effectively handle their interactions with stakeholders. 8) Ethical obligation. An organization that is socially responsible will prioritize sustainability and guarantee long-term prosperity. 9) Ensuring equal access and fairness. Thriving companies exhibit inclusivity, adaptability, transparency, and accountability. To cater to the requirements, preferences, capabilities, and diverse backgrounds of learners. 10) Moral conduct. Ethical conduct pertains to an organization's capacity to establish an ethical work environment that treats all stakeholders impartially, avoids conflicts of interest, and prioritizes the welfare of society. The last concept, which is the 11th principle, pertains to the safeguarding and security of data. This concept emphasizes the need of directing educational progress towards addressing empirical concerns and conducting rigorous and objective data analysis.

The success of an organization depends largely on the strategy used, the more precise the strategy will be able to determine to be able to achieve more optimal results. According to Ismail Sholihin in Ahmad (2020), the meaning of strategy is an activity or activity that a general can do when making plans to win a war. Therefore, strategies are systematic steps to implement a long-lasting plan to achieve the desired goal. Strategy can also mean an action plan that explains how to achieve goals. Bernando Delano (2022) defines strategy as a set of goals and objectives that provide direction to entrepreneurs over time, especially as the company's response in the face of the environment. Thus, strategy is an effort made by the company to achieve the expected goals while considering the opportunities and threats owned by the company.

One approach to develop an organization's strategy is by employing SWOT analysis tools, which involve assessing the organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths refer to the positive attributes and effective strategies that enhance the quality of an educational institution. These strengths may manifest as areas of expertise, competitive advantages, available resources, technological prowess, and other such factors. Weaknesses, also known as deficiencies, are aspects that have low value and are not good for educational institutions. In order to address this issue, educational institutions must establish trust and implement rules that promote the proficiency of students. Opportunities refer to advantageous circumstances for an educational institution, which involve giving priority to analyzing the requirements of relevant students.

Moreover, the danger component include factors that are anticipated to be reduced, such as the existence of competing educational institutions, regulations that are seen unfriendly to schools, and insufficient engagement from the school committee. Hence, the utilization of SWOT is anticipated to stimulate the enhancement of education quality through the concentration on personnel, advantageous geographical positions, and a conducive school environment (Garnika et al., 2021).

  • Table 1. SWOT Matrix Alternative
  • SWOT
  • STRENGTH (S)
  • WEAKNESS (T)
  • The specified strength is as much as factor that
  • Obtained
  • Debilitation specified As Factors obtained
  • OPPORTUNITIES (S)
  • S-O STRATEGY
  • W-O STRATEGY
  • Defined opportunities As factor that btained
  • Strategy that Used with use strength to seize opportunities
  • Strategies used to Minimize debilitation to seize opportunities
  • THREAT (T)
  • S-T STRATEGY
  • W-T STRATEGY
  • Threat that determined as Factors obtained
  • Strategy that Used to use Power to overcome threat
  • Strategies used to minimize  debiliation and avoiding threats


   (Source: David, 2016)

The results of the SWOT analysis then assist stakeholders in formulating and determining alternative strategies. An example of the description of the results of a SWOT analysis in a senior high school can be seen in the table below.

Table 2. Example of SWOT Analysis of Top Looking School


STRENGHT (S)

WEAKNESS (W)

INTERNAL FACTORS

EXTERNAL FACTORS

Good Top Management

Extracurricular Achievements

Causality Teacher Human Resources

School environment conditions are conducive to learning

Have adequate facilities

Have the same Vision and Mission


Internal conflicts still occur

HR work ethic is still lacking.

Lack of school hygiene

Student interest is still lacking for College.

Planning management is not good.

Decisions are volatile.

Conflict of interest


OPPORTUNITY (O)

SO -  STRATEGY

WO - STRATEGY


The high interest of parents to send their children to school

The school is in an industrial area for cooperation.

Central and local government support

Schools are nearby elite housing complex.

Establish communication and cooperation with the business world and the industrial world (DUDI) to improve the quality of SNP-based schools (S1-O2).

Organizes quality learning according to the needs of students (S2, 3-Q1).

3. Collaboration with parents in carrying out learning and providing support

to students

Strengthening teachers so that they are compact and have a high work ethic that is synergized with DUDI.

Conduct data-based planning Reinforcement for parents and students to want to continue to PT.


THREAT (T)

ST -  STRATEGY

WT -  STRATEGY


Government policy on kurikulumn changed.

Lack of public transportation, access to schools

Interference from local journalists.

There is still theft.

There are still frequent floods

Children's association is less conducive because of the area

industry

Strengthening the school security system for 24 hours.

Optimally explore students' talents and interests and facilitate them.

Socialize and strengthen any policy changes from the government.

Building a culture of togetherness and kinship.

Be more sensitive and caring about students so that every problem that arises can be solved early.


Based on the results of the SWOT matrix formulation in figure 3, 12 alternative strategies can be formulated in utilizing strengths and opportunities to overcome weaknesses and threats. Alternative strategies are:

1.Establish communication and cooperation with the business world and the industrial world (DUDI) to improve the quality of SNP-based schools. Cooperation with schools to improve school quality according to SNP, namely by optimizing the use of corporate CSR. Activities carried out can build learning infrastructure and improve teacher competence through various trainings.

2.Organizing quality learning according to the needs of students by designing lesson planning, learning implementation that facilitates every student regardless of the condition and background of students (inclusive education). This is in accordance with the principles of SNI ISO 21001: 2018.

3.Collaboration with parents in carrying out learning and providing support to students. Parents who have the spirit of sending their children to school are facilitated to contribute to improving the quality of the school. For example, by involving parents as a learning resource, making parents active partners in maintaining school condositivity to stay safe and comfortable.

4.Strengthening teachers so that they can work with compactness and high work ethic in synergy with DUDI. This can be done by establishing cooperation with DUDI in material or non-material form.

5.Structuring a safe and comfortable school environment in collaboration with the government, parents, and DUDI. Optimizing DUDI is involved in structuring the school environment through external funds/company grants.

6.Conduct data-based planning by involving all school residents. Every plan made must be based on data, namely on existing problems and root problems. Ensure that any planning involves all parties, promotes studies, and joint studies and joint decisions.

7.Strengthening parents and students to continue to higher education by holding strengthening programs for parents through regular parenting activities.

8.Strengthening the school security system for 24 hours. Create a good school security system for 24 hours, to ensure that only people who are interested are allowed to enter the school environment and of course protect school assets.

9.Optimally explore students' talents and interests and facilitate them, so that students are busy with fositive activities. The school must intensively have a program to explore the talents and interests of all students. Conduct coaching and mentoring for and facilitate so that these talents and interests are channeled. Thus learners will be busy with positive and useful activities.

10.Socializing and strengthening government policy transformation through socialization and organizational strengthening.

11.Building a culture of togetherness and kinship by promoting kindness, mutual understanding and forgiveness. Make it a habit to always check if there are negative issues, prioritizing common interests above individual egos.

12.Be more sensitive and caring for students through monitoring and evaluating the academic, affective, and psychomotor development of students.

CONCLUSION

SWOT analysis is a quality improvement analysis tool that is still relevant to be used to improve the quality of education and student competence. Policies on national education standards need to be integrated in SWOT analysis tools so that an education valley understands statistics and actions that can be an alternative to developing the quality of graduate competencies focusing on meeting the needs and expectations of students, developing teachers and education staff, adding infrastructure, and managing integrated school quality management between the government, job market needs and student competencies. Educational organizations that consistently maintain quality according to educational standards benefit from and from improved efficiency of the management system of educational organizations, continuous monitoring of management processes and commitment to the mission, satisfaction of consumer needs and expectations, individual approaches, and expanded stakeholder engagement.


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